Acta. Soc. Bot. Pol. 86 (2017) 1–21Folk food and medicinal botanical knowledge among the last remaining Yörüks of the Balkans
The present study examines the current lifestyle of the last remaining Balkan Yörüks, a small and isolated group found within the Republic of Macedonia, and the modern representatives of an important portion of the Balkan nomads. The aim of this study was to document knowledge concerning local wild food plants and wild and cultivated medicinal plants, and to compare the Yörük ethnobotany with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups occurring in the Balkan region (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Turkey) in order to assess how cultural adaptation processes may have affected Yörük plant folklore. We conducted this study by means of detailed, semi-structured interviews with 48 key informants.Sixty-seven plant taxa were recorded from 55 genera, based on the compilation of more than 150 reports relating to medicinal, food, forage, ornamental, and dye plants, as well as some elements relating to animals and minerals. Our field study data show several major ethnic boundary markers that contribute to the homogeneity of the community and also distinguish it sufficiently from the surrounding society: (i) well-isolated locality; (ii) local dialect and endogamy; (iii) casual clothing worn by women; (iv) ceremonial jewelry: a necklace of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum); (v) Sempervivum marmoreum as an only ornamental plant which also has a medicinal use; and (vi) Mentha spicata as the dominant culinary herb, which has a medicinal use too. Comparison of the collected ethnobotanical data with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups in the Balkan region shows that overlapping taxa include mainly plants whose fresh fruit are used; both nuts as well as edible greens. These plants are simultaneously used for medicinal purposes too, as home remedies, but in very different ways to other ethnic groups.Yörüks represent a remarkable cultural group in the Balkans. This community has nomadic traditions, but nowadays the people have a settled lifestyle. Traditional knowledge remains strong and is retained within a well-defined cultural boundary.
Emir. J. Food Agr. 29 (2017) 429–440The diversity of plants used for the traditional dish sarma in Turkey: nature, garden and traditional cuisine in the modern era
The selection of leaves for sarma is the result of human experience and observation, and the transmission of traditional knowledge in areas with different species richness. Seventy-three taxa whose leaves are used to prepare sarma in Turkey are reported. The prevalent species are from Rumex (11), Salvia (5), Beta and Malva, (4), Alcea, Arum, Brassica, Morus, and Plantago (3). Wild herbaceous plants (69.5%) dominate. Trees (8) and shrubs (2) mostly belong to the Rosaceae, Moraceae, Betulaceae and Malvaceae. Grapevine and cabbage predominate, together with beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. The use of leaves of three endemics was recorded: Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and Rumex olympicus. Some toxic plants are used after preliminary treatment, including those of Arum, Convolvulus, Tussilago and Smilax species. Colocasia esculenta is a novel sarma plant that has been involved to the cuisine in the last decade, following its introduction into Turkey.
J. Complement. Med. Res. 6 (2017) 223-233Traditional dentistry knowledge among Serbs in several Balkan countries
Background/Aim: There are still unrevealed treasures of traditional dental medicine that are the reason to investigate and present various ways in treatment of oral and orofacial tissues as well as magic and religious elements involved in representative areas among Serbs. Methods: Information was collected from the elderly non-professional folk dentists and herbalists with additional help from local physicians and dentists that was done through questionnaire and personal interviews. Results: Classified and prepared material consists of total 1038 enquiry sheets. The 41 data were averagely obtained by inquiry form i.e. 41984 information for the whole research. The most voluminous was group of 64 recipes: gums diseases 39 and toothache 25 while only seven for magic way of treatment. Among them 18 prescriptions were of non-herbal origin. The study revealed 84 herbal original prescriptions including 67 plant species (29 families) including local name, synonyms and preparation mode. Traditional healers used predominantly herbal recipes to treatpainful tooth, gum disease, blisters - herpetic ulcers /lips and mouth/, stomatitis /painful mouth, ptyalismus/, maxillary sinusitis, bad breath, teeth cleaning and bleaching. Very few methods of treatment appeared as inadequate (magical practice), whereas majority were noted as beneficial ones (herbal medicine). Still many people in distant non-urban areas use various plant recipes especially as the first aid in oral disease healing. Conclusions: The significance of plants obtained from unpolluted areas whose active ingredients have not yet been used in dental pharmaceutics should be investigated further.
J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. (2015) 11:26Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans
Background: Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possiblyvegetables and seasoning plants – represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Easternand South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use ofalternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanicaltaxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. Methods: Field studies were conducted during broader ethnobotanical surveys, as well as during ad-hocinvestigations between the years 2011 and 2014 that included diverse rural communities in Croatia, Bosnia andHerzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Primary ethnobotanical andfolkloric literatures in each country were also considered. Results: Eighty-seven botanical taxa, mainly wild, belonging to 50 genera and 27 families, were found to representthe bio-cultural heritage of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans. The greatest plant biodiversity in sarma was found inTurkey and, to less extent, in Bulgaria and Romania. The most commonly used leaves for preparing sarma were those of cabbage (both fresh and lacto-fermented),grape vine, beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. In a few cases, the leaves of endemicspecies (Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and R. olympicus in Turkey) were recorded.Other uncommon sarma preparations were based on lightly toxic taxa, such as potato leaves in NE Albania, leavesof Arum, Convolvulus, and Smilax species in Turkey, of Phytolacca americana in Macedonia, and of Tussilago farfarain diverse countries. Moreover, the use of leaves of the introduced species Reynoutria japonica in Romania, Colocasia esculenta in Turkey, and Phytolacca americana in Macedonia shows the dynamic nature of folk cuisines. Conclusion: The rich ethnobotanical diversity of sarma confirms the urgent need to record folk culinary plant knowledge. The results presented here can be implemented into initiatives aimed at re-evaluating folk cuisines andniche food markets based on local neglected ingredients, and possibly also to foster trajectories of the avant-gardecuisines inspired by ethnobotanical knowledge.
J. Ethnopharmacol. 170 (2015) 284–296An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europе
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Methods: Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Results: Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Discussion: Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies.
Genet. Resour. Crop. Evol. 62 (2015) 605–620Local knowledge of medicinal plants and wild food plants among Tatars and Romanians in Dobruja (South-East Romania)
Ethnobiological studies in South-Eastern Europe are gaining the interest of scholars and stakeholders, given that they are increasingly considered crucial for the evaluation and valorisation of local bio-cultural heritage. An ethnobotanical survey focusing on local wild food and wild and non-wild medicinal plant uses was conducted in six villages of Dobruja, Eastern Romania, among 44 elderly participants belonging to Tatar and Romanian communities. We recorded and identified 77 plant taxa, corresponding to 93 plant (use) reports. Only approximately half of the plants and one-third of the plant reports were common to both Tatars and Romanians. This demonstrates that the ethnobotanies of the two communities have remained somewhat different, despite the common history that these communities have shared over many centuries within the same social and environmental space. This finding can be explained by their different religious affiliations (Romanians are Orthodox, while Tatars are Muslims), which has limited intermarriages and relevant exchanges of knowledge, practices, and beliefs related to plants. In particular, nettle (Urtica dioica) is quite commonly used for food by Romanians, but is ignored by Tatars. Our study may be of interest to rural development programs aimed at fostering community-based management strategies of natural resources, as well as ecological and gastronomic tourism.
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 29 (2015) S1–S7Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara from Bulgaria
Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae) is widespread in Bulgaria and commonly known as ‘podbel.’ Although T. farfara is a common and widely used herb in folk medicine in the past and today, a study of alkaloid content from Bulgarian populations, which is the aim of this study, has not been done yet. Conventional processing of the dried and powdered plant material (Farfarae folium) including a mild reduction with Zn/HCl of the methanol extracts to convert N-oxides to tertiary bases resulted in the preparation of crude alkaloid mixture (CAM) of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). The alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the CAM. A total of four PAs were detected in Farfarae folium herbal substance. Senkirkine and senecionine were found to be major alkaloids, together with integerrimine and seneciphylline, as minor components. The alkaloid content was relatively low (0.0055%) or 55 µg/g. All of the above-mentioned alkaloids were unsaturated at 1,2 position and belonged to the group of the highly hepatotoxic macrocyclic diesters. The content of PAs has to be controlled in processes of T. farfara herbal gathering and herb production, quality control of food, nutrient supplements and other coltsfoot based products. The good botanical identification of T. farfara and morphologically closer PA content species is a prerequisite for quality monitoring and control of plant based products. Microscopic differentiation of the leaves of coltsfoot and butterbur (Petasites spp.) was established and described.
Folk Life: Journal of Ethnological Studies 52 (2014) 95–136A fistful of bladdernuts: the shifting uses of Staphylea pinnata L. as documented by archaeology, history, and ethnology
Research into the past cultural dimensions of plants is often restricted to plants with important uses, cultivated for millennia and ever sought after, and of fundamental meaning to human subsistence and economy. This is defi nitely true for the main cultivated crops of the Old World, and for plants regarded essential for other (e.g. medical) reasons. Bladdernut is defi nitely not one of these ‘great’ useful plants. Still, this shrub has had a curious past which seemed to us worth investigating, for the beliefs and meanings that still cling to it. As we will see, new beliefs are still developing.Largely building upon the previous detailed work by the fi rst author, the current study pursues the goal of drawing as complete a picture as possible of the cultural relevance of bladdernut in past societies. This has been done by critically evaluating the extant literature on material evidence, written historical sources, and ethnographic studies on Staphylea pinnata across Europe, and trying to suggest new interpretations for this plant. Originally given as a conference paper by the fi rst author listed, the following article has been considerably reworked and now includes substantially more research than previously.
J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. (2014) 10:31Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania
Background: Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). Methods: An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. Results: We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Conclusion: Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for understanding patterns of use of plants within given cultures. Importantly, such studies can also allow for analysis of the dynamics of change in these TEK patterns over the time. The results of this study may be important as baseline data set to be used in rural development programs in Gollobordo, aimed at fostering community-based strategies of management of natural resources.
in - Ethnobotany and Biocultural Diversities in the Balkans, 2014, pp. 45–65Bulgarian medicinal ethnobotany: the power of plants in pragmatic and poetic frames
Medical folk botany is a unique manifestation of folk knowledge, the basis of which is the natural human instinct for survival. This traditional knowledge is maintained and developed in support of the ancient right of every person for just existence without pain and suffering. These processes arise and develop within the spatio-cultural and historical scope of society. Medical ethnobotany is a dynamic system, developing in different directions and at a different pace, but always revolving around man’s knowledge of their own body and the surrounding nature. Plants are the closest and most natural environment for the existence of man and an essential part of his/her way of life. They are a main element of the beliefs, methods and institutions for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and their prevention. Because of this, folk botanical knowledge has an important role in every ethnomedicine. Bulgarian medical ethnobotany is a result of the development of archaic thinking and people’s consciousness. It precedes contemporary medicine and continues to exist alongside it as a separate area in traditional knowledge and culture. This peculiar symbiosis is part of the image of Bulgarian people and a natural source of self-knowledge and perfection in the pursuit of healthy and respecting nature lifestyle. It is also at the basis of contemporary Bulgarian complementary and alternative medicine. It is a duty, honour and pleasure for this generation to work toward revealing the uniqueness of this phenomenon through scientific methods and techniques based on critical analysis of the famous old manuscripts, documentary sources and artifacts together with fieldwork (collecting information from the population) in regions with preserved traditions in using plants as a curative method.
Eurasia. J. Biosci. 7 (2013) 77–94An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria
Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Material and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43) and fruits (38), followed by young shoots (9), seeds (7), roots (4), bulbs (4) and inflorescences (2). The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products), dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusions: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a good opportunity for ethnobotanical research into wild edible plants as there is much ethnographic data available, including food culture and botanical observations, as well as the possibility of field study in rural areas where wild food plants are traditionally used on a daily basis.
Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 7 (2013) 1762–1765Influence of serpentine soils on the flavonoid content of Hypericum populations growing in Bulgaria
The effect of environmental factors on the production of secondary metabolites by plants has attracted a considerable amount of attention. Most species populations growing on serpentine soils are adapted to these special edaphic conditions in different ways. In this study we investigated the flavonoid content in Bulgarian Hypericum populations from five Hypericum species (H. cerastoides, H. aucheri, H. montbretii, H. perforatum and H. olympicum) to evaluate the differences between plants growing on and off serpentine. The results showed that the serpentine substrate influences the amount of flavonoids in Hypericum species.
J. Med. Plants Res. 6 (2012) 2324–2339Medicinal plants from an old Bulgarian medical book
The aim of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical research of old written sources which give information about medicinal plants and preparation of folk remedies for a particular historical period. The object of the present study is “Canon Prayer to St. Ivan Rilski and Medicinal Text” (1845) - a part of the Bulgarian early printed literature heritage. The 92 submitted recipes cover a wide range of illnesses and symptoms ranging from antiseptic to cures for neurological diseases. High species diversity of medicinal plants is represented in the book - most of them are vascular plants from 36 families (Leguminosae, Umbeliferae, Compositae, Zingiberaceae, Piperaceae, Myristicaceae, Lauraceae, Labiatae, Liliaceae, etc.) and 65 genera. The main components in written folk remedies are medicinal plants (more than 69), followed by the animals and animal products (20) such as honey, eggs, leeches, blood, musk, etc., mineral elements (sulphur (S), mercury (Hg), Au, gold (Au), iron (Fe)) and other organic and inorganic compounds (30). The significant participation of spices such as clove, cinnamon, mastic and ginger in folk remedies sheds new light on the list of species that are traditionally used in the folk medicine. The ethnobotanical study on this book, support the thesis that it was founded on authentic recipes from the healing activity of St. Ivan Rilski, which has increased its historical value a lot.
Eurasia. J. Biosci. 6 (2012) 60–69Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view
Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010) from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.
Acta Soc. Bot. Polon. 81 (2012) 343–357Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe
In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap) has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.
Eurasia. J. Biosci. 5 (2011) 80–90Observations on the wall flora of Kyustendil (Bulgaria)
The wall fora of two buildings, the Historical Museum and the Dervish Bath (16th century), in the central part of the town of Kyustendil was investigated. Previous data for the same area of study has shown that the wall flora includes more than 120 species of vascular plants. This study presents data from five years of observations (2005-2010). During the last three years the town administration has conducted an urban maintenance program, including old town walls. These activities changed the condition of the walls to specific vertical habitats. Restored and cleaned walls present a unique opportunity for spontaneous colonization by the diversified surrounding landscape flora. The present study shows the dynamics of species diversity and analyzes the conformities and trends about the origin of this process. Most of them are associated with wall characteristics such as ferns (Asplenium trichomanes and Asplenium rutamuraria) and typically xerophytes (Arenaria serpyllifolia). New species such as Acer negundo and Catalpa speciosa, were located on the roof of the buildings. Trees negatively affect a walls' structure and present a basic problem for the preservation of walls. Some are accepted as an additional ornamental element and contribute to the complete perception of architectural and historical sites especially mosses, ferns and flowering plants (e.g. Cymbalaria muralis, Sedum hispanicum, Chelidonium majus, Oxalis spp., Trifolium spp.). The total representation of alien species on the studied walls is 17% and the most common families among the alien species are Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Oxalidaceae, a few of them are also highly invasive (e.g. Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Oxalis spp.). On the basis of the previous and present study the present state of the wall was estimated and recommendations were made about maintaining the old walls and their neighboring area.
Hum. Ecol. 39 (2011) 813–828The traditional use of plants for handicrafts in southeastern europe
raditional handicrafts based on plant materials are components of folk culture throughout the world. Also known as craftworks, or simply crafts, these products are designed for particular purposes, and are hand-made or manufactured with the help of simple tools and often incorporate aesthetic or ornamental properties. Many of these items have notable cultural and/or religious significance.
Indian J. Traditional Knowledge 7 (2008) 157–161Plants used in traditional handicrafts in several Balkan countries
The aim of the study is to show some of the most common and popular plants used as raw in some traditional handicrafts in Balkan countries, in relation to the natural plant resources and national traditions. The information is gathered largely from literature, analyzing the findings in the existing ethnographic collections as well as field collected data and interviewed during field survey conducted during 2006-2007 more than 50 local informants using non-structured interviews. Arundo donax, Cannabis sativa, Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fagus orientalis, Morus alba, Phragmites australis, Salix spp., Typha angustifolia, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus were found to be commonly used in the manufacturing of wood articles, mats & rugs making, basketry and fibers producing.